wpa_supplicant / hostapd 2.5
wpa_supplicant was designed to be easily portable to different hardware (board, CPU) and software (OS, drivers) targets. It is already used with number of operating systems and numerous wireless card models and drivers. The main wpa_supplicant repository includes support for Linux, FreeBSD, and Windows. In addition, the code has been ported to number of other operating systems like VxWorks, PalmOS, Windows CE, and Windows Mobile. On the hardware side, wpa_supplicant is used on various systems: desktops, laptops, PDAs, and embedded devices with CPUs including x86, PowerPC, arm/xscale, and MIPS. Both big and little endian configurations are supported.
wpa_supplicant is mostly using ANSI C functions that are available on most targets. However, couple of additional functions that are common on modern UNIX systems are used. Number of these are listed with prototypes in common.h (the
block). These functions may need to be implemented or at least defined as macros to native functions in the target OS or C library.
Many of the common ANSI C functions are used through a wrapper definitions in os.h to allow these to be replaced easily with a platform specific version in case standard C libraries are not available. In addition, os.h defines couple of common platform specific functions that are implemented in os_unix.c for UNIX like targets and in os_win32.c for Win32 API. If the target platform does not support either of these examples, a new os_*.c file may need to be added.
Unless OS_NO_C_LIB_DEFINES is defined, the standard ANSI C and POSIX functions are used by defining the os_*() wrappers to use them directly in order to avoid extra cost in size and speed. If the target platform needs different versions of the functions, os.h can be modified to define the suitable macros or alternatively, OS_NO_C_LIB_DEFINES may be defined for the build and the wrapper functions can then be implemented in a new os_*.c wrapper file.
common.h defines number of helper macros for handling integers of different size and byte order. Suitable version of these definitions may need to be added for the target platform.
wpa_supplicant implements a configuration interface that allows the backend to be easily replaced in order to read configuration data from a suitable source depending on the target platform. config.c implements the generic code that can be shared with all configuration backends. Each backend is implemented in its own config_*.c file.
The included config_file.c backend uses a text file for configuration and config_winreg.c uses Windows registry. These files can be used as an example for a new configuration backend if the target platform uses different mechanism for configuration parameters. In addition, config_none.c can be used as an empty starting point for building a new configuration backend.
Unless the target OS and driver is already supported, most porting projects have to implement a driver wrapper. This may be done by adding a new driver interface module or modifying an existing module (driver_*.c) if the new target is similar to one of them. Driver wrapper implementation describes the details of the driver interface and discusses the tasks involved in porting this part of wpa_supplicant.
wpa_supplicant needs to have access to sending and receiving layer 2 (link layer) packets with two Ethertypes: EAP-over-LAN (EAPOL) 0x888e and RSN pre-authentication 0x88c7. l2_packet.h defines the interfaces used for this in the core wpa_supplicant implementation.
If the target operating system supports a generic mechanism for link layer access, that is likely the best mechanism for providing the needed functionality for wpa_supplicant. Linux packet socket is an example of such a generic mechanism. If this is not available, a separate interface may need to be implemented to the network stack or driver. This is usually an intermediate or protocol driver that is operating between the device driver and the OS network stack. If such a mechanism is not feasible, the interface can also be implemented directly in the device driver.
The main wpa_supplicant repository includes l2_packet implementations for Linux using packet sockets (l2_packet_linux.c), more portable version using libpcap/libdnet libraries (l2_packet_pcap.c; this supports WinPcap, too), and FreeBSD specific version of libpcap interface (l2_packet_freebsd.c).
If the target operating system is supported by libpcap (receiving) and libdnet (sending), l2_packet_pcap.c can likely be used with minimal or no changes. If this is not a case or a proprietary interface for link layer is required, a new l2_packet module may need to be added. Alternatively, for hostapd, struct wpa_driver_ops::hapd_send_eapol() handler can be used to override the l2_packet library if the link layer access is integrated with the driver interface implementation.
wpa_supplicant uses a single process/thread model and an event loop to provide callbacks on events (registered timeout, received packet, signal). eloop.h defines the event loop interface. eloop.c is an implementation of such an event loop using select() and sockets. This is suitable for most UNIX/POSIX systems. When porting to other operating systems, it may be necessary to replace that implementation with OS specific mechanisms that provide similar functionality.
wpa_supplicant uses a control interface to allow external processed to get status information and to control the operations. Currently, this is implemented with socket based communication; both UNIX domain sockets and UDP sockets are supported. If the target OS does not support sockets, this interface will likely need to be modified to use another mechanism like message queues. The control interface is optional component, so it is also possible to run wpa_supplicant without porting this part.
wpa_supplicant defines a set of functions that can be used to initialize main supplicant processing. Each operating system has a mechanism for starting new processing or threads. This is usually a function with a specific set of arguments and calling convention. This function is responsible on initializing wpa_supplicant.
wpa_supplicant/main.c includes an entry point for UNIX-like operating system, i.e., main() function that uses command line arguments for setting parameters for wpa_supplicant. When porting to other operating systems, similar OS-specific entry point implementation is needed. It can be implemented in a new file that is then linked with wpa_supplicant instead of main.o. wpa_supplicant/main.c is also a good example on how the initialization process should be done.
The supplicant initialization functions are defined in wpa_supplicant_i.h. In most cases, the entry point function should start by fetching configuration parameters. After this, a global wpa_supplicant context is initialized with a call to wpa_supplicant_init(). After this, existing network interfaces can be added with wpa_supplicant_add_iface(). wpa_supplicant_run() is then used to start the main event loop. Once this returns at program termination time, wpa_supplicant_deinit() is used to release global context data.
wpa_supplicant_add_iface() and wpa_supplicant_remove_iface() can be used dynamically to add and remove interfaces based on when wpa_supplicant processing is needed for them. This can be done, e.g., when hotplug network adapters are being inserted and ejected. It is also possible to do this when a network interface is being enabled/disabled if it is desirable that wpa_supplicant processing for the interface is fully enabled/disabled at the same time.
One way to start a porting project is to begin with a very simple build of wpa_supplicant with WPA-PSK support and once that is building correctly, start adding features.
Following command can be used to build very simple version of wpa_supplicant:
cc -o wpa_supplicant config.c eloop.c common.c md5.c rc4.c sha1.c \ config_none.c l2_packet_none.c tls_none.c wpa.c preauth.c \ aes_wrap.c wpa_supplicant.c events.c main_none.c drivers.c
The end result is not really very useful since it uses empty functions for configuration parsing and layer 2 packet access and does not include a driver interface. However, this is a good starting point since the build is complete in the sense that all functions are present and this is easy to configure to a build system by just including the listed C files.
Once this version can be build successfully, the end result can be made functional by adding a proper program entry point (main*.c), driver interface (driver_*.c and matching CONFIG_DRIVER_* define for registration in drivers.c), configuration parser/writer (config_*.c), and layer 2 packet access implementation (l2_packet_*.c). After these components have been added, the end result should be a working WPA/WPA2-PSK enabled supplicant.
After the basic functionality has been verified to work, more features can be added by linking in more files and defining C pre-processor defines. Currently, the best source of information for what options are available and which files needs to be included is in the Makefile used for building the supplicant with make. Similar configuration will be needed for build systems that either use different type of make tool or a GUI-based project configuration.